Video Basics

ARTV 1351-Digital Video
Robert Flowers, Instructor

Lecture 01: Video Basics

1. Anaog and digital video use tape to store information by manipulating magnetic particles suspended on a thin piece of celluloid. Similar in theory to how audio is recorded on tape.

2. Digital video can also be stored on hard drives, or solid state media.

3. Film records information by light striking light sensitive particles suspended in a gelatinous substance, creates Latent image. Must be developed using a chemical bath.

4. Frames per second or f.p.s (standard speeds)

Film: 24, 25
SD video: 30p or 60i(29.97), 24p(23.976)
HD video: 60p(59.94), 60i(29.97), 30p(29.97), 30i(29.97), 24p(23.976)

5. Video standards: NTSC (standard definition “SD” and high definition “HD”), PAL, SECAM

6. Video horizontal resolution: NTSC = 720 x 480 (SD), 1920 x 1080,
1280 x 720 (HD)
Also referred to in this manner:
Standard definition (SD): 480i, 480p
High definition (HD): 1080i, 1080p, 720p

6a. Video resolution with frame rate examples:

High definition (HD): 1080i60, 1080p30, 1080p24, 720p60, 720p30, 720p24

7. Interlacing (2-fields) vs. progressive (1 full frame)
(upper = odd = field01) (lower = even = field02) DV is always lower field first.

8. Aspect ratios video vs. film: (4×3 = 1.33:1) (16×9 = 1.78:1) vs. (1.33:1, 1.78:1, 1.85:1, 2.35:1 are film ratios)

9. Analog video tape formats: VHS-C, VHS, S-VHS, BETA, Betacam (SP),  Hi-8, 8mm, ¾”U-matic, 1”, 2″.

9a. Digital video tape formats: D-VHS, mini-DV, Digital 8, DigiBeta, DVCAM, DVPro, DVCPro 50, HDV, DVCPRO HD.

9b. Other recording media: P2, Compact Flash, Hard-drive, DVD-R

10. Color Sampling: 4:4:4 (uncompressed) 4:2:2 & 4:1:1 = (compressed)
Luminance (brightness) : Chroma (Color) : Chroma

11. Compression: 1:1 = uncompressed. 5:1 = DV

12. Codec’s: DV, MJPEG, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 (AVCHD),Windows Media, DIVX, HD (various)

13. Video File Extensions: .AVI (Windows) .MOV (Apple) .mpg (universal)..m2v (universal) .mp4 (Apple) .wmv (Windows)

14. Data Rate: DV = 25 Mbps or 3 MB per second

15. Pixel ratio: .09, 1.0, 1.2, 1.33

16. Video connectors: RF, Composite (RCA), S-Video (Y/C), Component (R,G,B), HDMI, SDI

16a. Audio connectors: 1/8, 1/4, XLR, RCA, coaxial, optical

17. Audio types: Mono, stereo, Surround Sound (Dolby Digital 5.1, Pro Logic, DTS ect.) Analog Noise reduction. Dolby B, C, S, DBX, DBX II.

18. Tape speed: SP (superior) vs. LP or EP

19. Light is composed of 3 colors: Light Red, Green, Blue = White

20. DVD frame rate: 29.97 or 24(23.976) fps

21. Audio sampling rate: 44.1khz = CD 48khz = DAT, DVD 96khz = DVD-Audio, SA-CD

Video Basics.pdf –11.5MB